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Dr Tim Paget

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My current research covers a range of areas including the identification of pathogens in clinical and other complex materials and this has been a major focus of my work for over 10 years. In addition, I have also developed research into the identification of novel approaches/drugs for the treatment of infection and the biochemistry/protein chemistry associated with pathogenicity of a range of protozoan and bacterial pathogens. To support my work, I have developed an international network of collaborators and have strong links with academics in the UK, NHS and industry.

Teaching and supervision

I currently teach all aspects of medical microbiology, introductory biochemistry and molecular biology on Medicine MBChB. I have successfully supervised 21 PhD and 4 MPhil/ MSc by research students on topics around various aspects of medical microbiology.

Research interests for potential research students

Research areas for potential PhD students focus on understanding the basic cell biology of a number of orphan parasites including Giardia and Acanthamoeba with respect to the identification of novel drug targets. In addition, I am interested in developing non antibiotic approaches to the control of pathogens and linked to this is the development of rapid detection for difficult to culture microbial pathogens. I am also interested in how we monitor microbial contamination of clinical environments.


My research is diverse but has an overarching theme of infection control particularlywith respect to orphan infectious diseases. The information below gives a brief introduction to the work that I am currently involved in.


Over the past 20 years I have been involved in studying the physiological adaptation of protist parasites to their environment in the host. This has mostly focused on the protozoan Giardia intestinalis, a human pathogen. During this time I have identified new metabolic pathways in this organism and have also characterised the biochemical process through which this organism survives in the gastrointestinal tract, in particular adaptation to an environment with variable oxygen concentrations - active oxygen species and oxidative stress. I have also been involved in a number of related studies looking at the process of cellular transformation in Giardia and the genetic plasticity of this species. All this work has been externally funded through Wellcome, The Leverhulme Trust and the National Institute of Health (USA).


My research on Acanthamoeba has focused on the development of reagents that can be used for the rapid identification of this organism in both clinical materials as well as in the eye. This work has so far utilised bacteriophage display technology, however we will be starting work on the potential applications of chromogenic substrates. Alongside this we are utilising PDT to identify novel approaches for control of Acanthamoeba (currently no useful drugs available for treatment). We are also revisiting work initiated 10 years ago on mechanisms of pathogenicity in this organism.

Biofilms and surface chemistry

I am interested in the development of polymicrobial biofilms on medical devices and metarials and this follows on from previous work on the development of  a novel ‘biofilm resistant’ speech valve. This work was highlighted in the Times Higher Education Supplement and in The Engineer.


Photodynamic Therapy
The development of novel approaches to control infection is a major research interest and we are currently looking at the potential of photoactivated drugs (PDT) to control problem microbial infections including wounds and localised parasitic infections.

Bacteriophage Antibodies
A significant proportion of my work with phage antibodies focuses on the application of phage technology as both a research and diagnostic tool. We are currently using this technology to develop useful peptides for detection and drug targeting.


Number of items: 23.


Lloyd, David, Chapman, Alan, Ellis, Jayne E., Hillman, Kevin, Paget, Timothy, Yarlett, Nigel and Williams, Alan G. (2021) Oxygen levels are key to understanding “Anaerobic” protozoan pathogens with micro-aerophilic lifestyles. Advances in Microbial Physiology, 79. pp. 163-240. ISSN 0065-2911

Khattab, RA, Elbandy, M, Lawrence, A, Paget, Timothy, Rae-Rho, J, Binnaser, YS and Ali, I (2018) Extraction, identification and biological activities of saponins in sea cucumber Pearsonothuria graeffei. Comb Chem High Throughput Screen, 21 (3). pp. 222-231. ISSN 1386-2073

Anyanwu, Philip Emeka, Fulton, John, Evans, Etta and Paget, Timothy (2017) Exploring the role of socioeconomic factors in the development and spread of anti-malarial drug resistance: a qualitative study. Malaria Journal, 16 (1). ISSN 1475-2875

Paget, Timothy (2017) The Chemical Characterization of Nigerian Propolis samples and Their Activity Against Trypanosoma brucei. Scientific reports, 7 (923). ISSN 2045-2322

Anyanwu, Philip, Fulton, John, Paget, Timothy and Evans, Etta (2016) Socioeconomic Determinants of Antimalarial Drug Use Behaviours: A Systematic Review. Journal of Community and Public Health Nursing, 2 (2). ISSN 2471-9846

Siheri, W., Zhang, T., Unekwuojo Ebiloma, G., Biddau, M., Woods, N., Yassein Hussain, M., Clements, C., Fearnley, J., Edrada Ebel, R., Paget, Timothy, Muller, S., Carter, K.C., Ferro, V.A., De Koning, H.P. and Watson, D.G. (2016) Chemical and Antimicrobial Profiling of Propolis from Different Regions within Libya. PLOS ONE, 11 (5). ISSN 1932-6203

Alam, Muhammad Irfan, Paget, Timothy and Elkordy, Amal (2016) Characterisation of furazolidone-chitosan based spray dried microparticles regarding their drug release and mucin adsorptive properties. Powder Technology, 295. pp. 175-179. ISSN 0032-5910

Alam, Muhammad Irfan, Paget, Timothy and Elkordy, Amal (2016) Formulation and advantages of furazolidone in liposomal drug delivery systems. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 84. pp. 139-145. ISSN 0928-0987

Abulreesh, H.H., Paget, Timothy and Goulder, R. (2014) A pre-enrichment step is essential for detection of Campylobacter sp in turbid pond water. Tropical Biomedicine, 31 (2). pp. 320-326.

Sulemana, A, Paget, Timothy and Jarroll, EL (2014) Commitment to cyst formation in Giardia. Microbiology, 160 (2). pp. 330-339. ISSN 1350-0872

Paget, Timothy, Haroune, Nicolas, Bagchi, S and Jarroll, E (2013) Metabolomics and Protozoan Parasites. Acta Parasitologica, 58 (2). pp. 127-131. ISSN 1230-2821

Koh, W, Geurden, T, Paget, Timothy, O'Handley, R, Steuart, R, Thompson, A and Buret, A G (2012) Giardia duodenalis assemblage-specific induction of apoptosis and tight junction disruption in human intestinal epithelial cells: Effects of mixed infections. The Journal of Parasitology. ISSN 0022-3395

Bagchi, S, Oniku, A E, Topping, K, Mamhoud, Z N and Paget, Timothy (2012) Programmed cell death in Giardia. Parasitology, 139 (7). pp. 894-903. ISSN 0031-1820

Vince, R V, Madden, L A, Alonso, C M, Savoie, H, Boyle, R W, Todman, M, Paget, Timothy and Greenman, J (2011) Identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-specific peptides for targeted photoantimicrobial chemotherapy. Photochemical and Photobiological Science, 10. pp. 515-522. ISSN 1474-905X

Lawrence, A, Afifi, R, Ahamed, M, Khalifa, S and Paget, Timothy (2010) Bioactivity as an options value of sea cucumbers in the Egyptian Red Sea. Conservation Biology, 24 (1). pp. 217-225. ISSN 1523-1739

Book Section

Jarroll, E.L. and Paget, Timothy (2016) Giardia intestinalis Biochemistry and regulation: an evolutionary tale. In: A Century of Parasitology: Discoveries, Ideas and lessons learned by Scientists who published in the Journal of Parasitology. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK., pp. 177-188. ISBN 978-1-118-88476-8

Conference or Workshop Item

Alam, M-I., Elkordy, Amal and Paget, Timothy (2014) Enhanced dissolution profile of poorly water soluble furazolidone by different methods. In: APS PharmSci2014: The Science of Medicines, 8 - 10 Sep 2014, Univerity of Hertfordshire, Hatfield. (Unpublished)

Paget, Timothy and Jarroll, E.L. (2014) Metabolomic Analysis of Giardia Intestinalis. In: International Congress of Parasitology Associations (ICOPA), 10 - 15 August 2014, Mexico City, Mexico.

Jarroll, E.L. and Paget, Timothy (2014) Giardia Metabolism and Regulation. In: American Society of Parasitology meeting, 24 - 28 July 2014, New Orleans, USA.

Wassef, Christine, Andrew, Inga, Paget, Timothy and Nazar, Hamde (2013) Sedative drug prescribing practices at a local Hospice at the end-of-life compared to current guidelines. In: UK Clinical Pharmacy Association 2013., 17-19 May 2013, Majestic Hotel, Harrogate.


Onwukwe, Michael, Paget, Timothy, Hayes, Catherine and Fulton, John The Postgraduate Health Sciences Dissemination Series: 'Age Distribution of Schistosomiasis and other Gastrointestinal Related Parasitic Infections Amongst Children aged 0-15 Years in Oguta Imo State, Nigeria; a Retrospective Study of Prevalence Rates (2012-2015)’. UNSPECIFIED.

Onwukwe, Michael I, Paget, Timothy, Fulton, John and Hayes, Catherine The Postgraduate Public Health Dissertation Dissemination Series:'Age Distribution of Schistosomiasis and other Gastrointestinal Related Parasitic Infections Amongst Children aged 0-15 years in Oguta Imo State, Nigeria; a Retrospective Study of Prevalence Rates'. UNSPECIFIED. (Unpublished)

Nchekwube, Chidimma, Paget, Timothy, Fulton, John and Hayes, Catherine The Postgraduate Public Health Dissertation Dissemination Series:The Distribution of Mosquito Larvae and Pupae on a University Campus in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria; a Comparative Investigation. UNSPECIFIED. (Unpublished)

This list was generated on Sat Apr 1 10:17:57 2023 BST.
  • Parasite biochemistry and drug resistance
  • Microbial detection
  • Non- antibiotic control of microbial infections
My publications and related can be found on Google Scholar.

Last updated 16 November 2021