A gender pay gap is a difference between the average (mean) pay of all male and female workers across all jobs in the organisation. A gender pay gap does not mean that men and women are paid different rates for the same work (which is illegal). It means that, on average, there may be more women in lower-paid jobs and more men in higher-paid jobs.
The University supports the principle of equal pay for work of equal value. We were one of the first universities to introduce an Equal Pay Policy and we publish annual Equality, Diversity and Social Responsibility reports which describe the wide range of activities and initiatives that the University is involved with every year to celebrate and promote diversity.
We have conducted annual Equal Pay Audits since 2003 and have been cited by the Equality and Human Rights Commission. These audits complement our aims of fairly rewarding staff, increasing efficiency and enhancing our reputation.
In 2017, the Government introduced a new duty for organisations to report their Gender Pay Gap. They use a standard approach which is slightly different from the one we have used previously (a wider pool of staff that includes casual workers and fee and expenses claimants, and different pay elements). This means that our Gender Pay Gap has been calculated differently since 2017, but remains comparable to our data from previous years.
Gender Pay Gap
The following data relates to a March 2019 snapshot for publication in 2020.
Women are well-represented at all levels of our grading structure, including our most senior academic, professional and leadership roles, and this is reflected in our Mean Gender Pay Gap of 13.5%, which remains much better than the pay gap in the UK workforce. This pay gap is the difference between the average pay of all men, and the average pay of all women in the organisation.
Chart 1: Gender Pay Gap trends
Table 1. Gender Pay Gap trends
|Year||Mean Gender Pay Gap (University of Sunderland)||Median Gender Pay Gap (University of Sunderland)||Mean UK Workforce (ONS*)||Median UK Workforce (ONS*)|
|2016||Not reported||Not reported||17.5%||18.2%|
*Office of National Statistics: Annual survey of hours and earnings (ASHE) gender pay gap tables.
The Median pay gap works by standing all men and all women in two imaginary lines in order of pay and then comparing the rate of pay of the middle man and woman in each line. Our Median Gender Pay Gap of 15.4% reflects the fact that, in addition to the positive representation of women across our pay structure, there are some part-time roles at the lower end of our pay structure which tend to be predominantly filled by women (see Bonuses and Quartiles below; for example we have many Domestic Support Assistants who are mostly women.)
View our most recent Equality, Diversity and Social Responsibility annual reports.
Visit the Government's website for Gender Pay Gap data.
Chart 2. Distribution of hourly rates by gender
Histogram showing hourly rate of pay vs number of staff for men and women. Both men and women’s plots are a similar shape, with a gradual increase in rate of pay along the line of lower paid staff, and a sharp increase in the rate of pay for the highest paid staff. However the plot for women is longer and rises more slowly, so that the median women has a lower rate of pay than the median man.
Chart 3: Staff numbers by type of role in the 2019 pay gap analysis
Chart 4: Staff numbers in each pay gap analysis
The Government requires organisations to rank all staff according to pay and split them into four equal parts (quartiles) then publish what proportion of each quartile is male or female.
- Our upper (fourth) quartile is nearly 50% female and includes Senior Managers, Professors and Associate Professors, senior academics and non-academic professionals.
- Our upper middle (third) quartile is more than 50% female and includes many professional support grades, Lecturers and Senior Lecturers, Academic Tutors and Casual Workers.
- The higher proportion of women in the lower quartiles is a significant influence on our overall pay gap.
The data for quartiles is shown in the chart below:
Chart 5: Quartiles by gender
Four percentage bars representing pay quartiles showing the proportion of men and women in each quartile. The lowest quartile is 69% women, lower middle is 61% women, upper middle is 56% women, and the highest is 47% women.
The Government requires organisations to specify the pay gap in any bonus pay including Long Service Awards. Only 0.9% of males (seven individuals) and 0.3% of females (three individuals) received a bonus in the 12 months to 31 March 2019. These very low numbers mean that the statutory calculation is not statistically meaningful.
- The Mean Bonus Gender Pay Gap is 83.0%. This is the difference between the average bonus paid to the seven males and three females who received a bonus.
- The Median Bonus Gender Pay Gap is 80%. This compares the actual bonus paid to the middle person in the list of seven males and three females who received a bonus.